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Research - Citation Help: Turabian Style

Learn how to format your footnotes and bibliographies using Turabian or APA style.

Turabian Manual

The Athenaeum of Ohio/Mount St. Mary’s Seminary uses Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 9th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018) for all academic coursework.


The Athenaeum Citation Guide details how to use Zotero to create footnotes and bibliographies using Turabian style. The document includes instructions for standard formats such as books and journal articles, but also includes instruction for specialized sources such as encyclicals, liturgical books, and more.

Zotero citations generally conform to Turabian formats, though the Athenaeum has made some local modifications to Turabian Style to facilitate the use of Zotero.

Previously, citation formats and examples were available on this webpage. All formatting and examples are now available via the Athenaeum Citation Guide, which you can print or view online.

If not using Zotero, consult the Turabian manual for more information on creating citations. When applicable, the Athenaeum Citation Guide refers to the corresponding section of the Turabian manual (see locators in parentheses in the “Cited Source” column).


Maly Library strongly suggests the use of Zotero, a free citation manager, to significantly reduce the labor of citations.

General Formatting Guidelines

For general formatting guidelines, see the Course Papers Guide and Thesis Guide.