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Research - Citation Help: Home

Learn how to format your footnotes and bibliographies using Turabian or APA style.

The Importance of Citations

Citations are a valuable and important aspect of all research.

  • Citations protect you from plagiarism. By citing the works and ideas that informed your research, you prevent yourself from wrongly assuming ownership of those ideas.
  • Citations illustrate your knowledge and familiarity of your subject matter. Your citations illustrate that you have completed thorough research and explored your field, contextualizing and validating your research.
  • Citations point the reader to further learning opportunities. By providing the reader with the works you consulted, you allow them to also consult those works for further research.

Citations are an integral aspect of maintaining the accountability, responsibility, and ethical nature of academic research.

Citation Styles for Athenaeum Students

For theology, ministerial, and seminary classes:

Papers for these classes follow the guidelines found in the current edition of A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian. This is an adaptation of the fuller Chicago Manual of Style, which may be used as a reference for points not covered in Turabian. Both manuals may be found in the reference area of the library.

The Athenaeum follows the bibliography/notes format in Turabian, which calls for a bibliography of items at the end of the paper. Notes within the body of the paper are cited as footnotes or in-text references.

Guidesheets with examples of Turabian citation formats for bibliographies and notes are available in the library.

For pastoral counseling classes:

Papers for these classes follow the style of the American Psychological Association (APA), found in Concise Rules of APA Style, 2005. The full style manual is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed. 2001. Both manuals may be found in the reference area of the library.

Guidesheets with examples of APA citation formats for bibliographies are available in the library.  For APA Style guidelines, visit the Pastoral Counseling LibGuide.

Quick Links

Sources for Turabian Guide

Arnold, Nicole. "Chicago/Turabian." Muskingum University Library Guides. Accessed November 27, 2012.

Kenrick-Glennon Seminary. "Guidelines for Academic Papers, Revised and updated August 2015." Accessed August 29, 2016.

"The Writer's Handbook: Chicago Documentation Style." The Writing Center @ the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Accessed August 23, 2012.

Turabian, Kate. A Manual for Writers. 7th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2007.

Turabian, Kate. A Manual for Writers. 8th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2013.

University of St. Thomas. "Chicago Style." The Doherty Library Research Guide Page. Accessed November 27, 2012.